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What do the best bartender resumes start with after contact information? That’s right! With a resume objective or a professional resume summary. Reference Global College On Kordell. But which should you choose? You have 20+ years of California Purchase Agreement Escrow experience slinging Singapore Slings at Powerpoint Countryside hotel bars. Agreement. Resume summaries are for career bartenders who want a resume that highlights bartending skill and achievements. You were once a Financial Analyst now you want to 25+ Telephone Ideas On Pinterest | K Love Number, make Moscow Mules.
Your experience serving alcohol was grabbing beers for your dad during the And Joint Escrow, Superbowl. Resume objectives are for career changers or entry-level bartenders. System Analyst. Use a resume objective to California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow, point out that who you are now can translate to Powerpoint And Summer, who you want to be for the employer. Here’s a sample resume summary for a professional nightclub bartender resume: Charming Bartender with 5+ years of California Purchase Agreement Escrow experience working as a high-end nightclub bartender in major metropolitan areas. Excellent memory and relationship building skills resulting in a 10% increase in Powerpoint, up selling for Purchase Agreement Escrow, all regulars. Have a Bartending Certificate valid in most states. Potential Bartender seeking part-time position at Powerpoint Depiction And Summer Dirty Joe’s Dive Bar and Purchase Escrow Nightclub.
I don’t have experience, but I know that vodka martinis are shaken not stirred. I am handsome and System good at guessing ages. California Purchase Agreement Escrow. It’s not the Reference From Global Corporate College On Kordell Norton, best idea to write a bartending resume summary that highlights the fact that you don’t have bartending skills. Instead, go for a resume objective. California Purchase Agreement. Also, avoid the Here To Download This Manager Template Http, first person. California Escrow. Keep it about the employer. Here’s a sample resume objective for Click To Download Store Template, an entry-level banquet bartender resume: Responsible Mathematics Undergraduate with an upbeat attitude. California Residential. Acute leadership abilities developed over 2 years as team captain of the soccer team. Seeking to use organizational skills and a fantastic memory as a part-time banquet bartender at Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas Love Number The Black Lodge Bar and Lounge. I am a mathematics graduate seeking a part-time job as a banquet bartender because I like alcohol, I need to get out more, and Agreement I need money. Know Privacy. Unfortunately, no one cares what you need.
Your bartending resume objective should tell the Residential, hiring manager you’ve got what they need. How do you know what they need? Read the bartender job description. Medical |. Pro Tip: Always remember to choose adjectives from the bartender job description to describe yourself. If the job description asks for an “outgoing” bartender, lead with “outgoing.” That way, the hiring manager sees what she wants first thing.
At the same time, if you’re the Silent Bob of California Residential Agreement And Joint bartending, don’t write “outgoing” on your sample bartender resume. Know Privacy. Lying will backfire at a later date. California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow. How to Corporate College On Kordell, Describe Your Bartending Experience. Residential Agreement And Joint. If you’re an experienced bartender, lead with your experience. Put your experience section under your bartending resume summary. Underneath each job, add up to six bartender responsibilities. Your lead bartender resume duties should include skills found in Resumes Cv: Diet, the job description and quantifiable achievements.
Here’s an example of a standard job description for a bartender: Here’s what a tailored experience entry would look like on an experienced bartender resume: The Bamboo Lounge 2006 - 2016. California Residential And Joint Escrow. New York City, New York. Created 15 themed cocktails over This Store Manager Resume Http, the course of a 10 year tenure. Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint. Curated various regional wines, resulting in a 15% increase in Cover Letter, annual sales. Maintained an extensive knowledge of New York hotel services and Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow local activities. The job seeker above has mentioned both a “knowledge of wine” and an extensive knowledge of “hotel services and local activities.” Both of which the Powerpoint Of Trees, hiring manager asked for California Residential Purchase Escrow, in the Reference Letter Global College, bartender job description. California Residential And Joint Escrow. 1995 - 2000 Springfield, Illinois. Responsible for serving beer to Format Doc India What To, customers.
Responsible for California Residential And Joint, wiping down bar. Know Privacy. Responsible for California Purchase Agreement And Joint, checking IDs. The job seeker above uses “responsible for” three times. Analyst Cover Letter. Yawn. California Purchase And Joint Escrow. Use action verbs where possible. Even “served beers to customers” is Appointment Letter Letter Samples What To preferable resume wording to Purchase And Joint, “responsible for serving.” Also, avoid mundane bartender responsibilities. Template: Of Trees And Summer. Add achievements that show off bartender skills instead. Notice the California Residential Agreement, addition of bartending achievements in the right example.
Curated various regional wines, resulting in a 15% increase in Number On Pinterest | K Love Phone, annual sales. California Purchase And Joint. You’ll want to use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach: In situation P (Problem), I did A (Action) which led to R (Result). Here’s how you write bartending achievements on a great bartender resume: Problem: There was a dip in regular customers due to Best Number Number, lack of Purchase Agreement imaginative cocktails. Appointment Letter Format Doc India | Cover Letter Samples What. Action: Memorized 50+ drink menu before innovating a further 10 cocktails. California Residential Purchase. Result: Boosted the number of Powerpoint regulars who come to the bar often. Memorized a 50+ drink selection before innovating a further 10 cocktails, doubling the number of regulars who frequent The Zebra Room. California Agreement Escrow. If you have no experience, you can still add an Know Privacy, experience section. You only California And Joint Escrow, have to Click To Download This Http, be more creative about what you add. Escrow. Here’s the Powerpoint Of Trees, bartender job description once again: June 2016 - August 2016. California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow. Provided customer service for Chart, clients visiting the office.
Served hot beverages and shared knowledge of hotel services and Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow local activities. Monitored cleanliness of the office kitchen and other facilities. Memorized and Chart organized filing system for transition to digital storage. Purchase And Joint Escrow. Here the Here To Download Http, job seeker has chosen duties from her internship that match the bartender resume duties from the Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow, job description. Note, these may not have been her primary duties at her internship, but they are the most relevant to Manager Resume Template, the job on offer.
She throws in California Agreement Escrow, transferable skills as well - memorization and organization. Both are skills that any great bartender resume with no experience should highlight. Pro Tip: Let’s say you’ve had several short time gigs at bars where you worked for less than a year. Know Privacy. You don’t want to Residential Agreement Escrow, come off as a job seeker with itchy feet. Only select relevant jobs to avoid looking like a job hopper. Click Here This Manager Resume. Is Your Education Section Underperforming?
It Might Be. California Residential Purchase Escrow. Education isn’t mandatory for you to Here Manager Http, serve drinks to thirsty customers. In fact, bartending is California And Joint often a job that college students hold while finishing up a degree. Powerpoint Template: Depiction And Summer Countryside. Only have a high school degree? Here’s how to California Purchase And Joint Escrow, add your education to Click To Download This Manager Resume Template Http, your entry-level bartender resume: Tom Collins High School, Somewhere, NY Graduated in 2007. Here’s how to add your college education if you’ve not graduated yet: Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Expected to Residential Purchase And Joint, graduate in 2018 with a BA in Letter Letter What, Journalism. Here’s how to add education that you did not complete: Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 2005 -2007 Completed 60 credits toward a BA in Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow, English. Format Doc India | Cover Letter Samples. Let’s say you finished bartending school. Residential Agreement Escrow. You’ll want to From, add it to California Residential Agreement, your bartending resume first before your other, formal education. Offshore Medical Certificate |. New York Bartending School, New York, NY.
Bartending Certification 2011. Learned bar set-up, classic drink recipes, wine knowledge, and Purchase Agreement Escrow service. New York Bartending School, New York, NY. Bartending Certification 2011. You’ll want to Resumes Cv: Diet, put your licensure above whatever school you finished. Put your high school on your entry-level bartender resume unless you’ve finished college. Pro Tip: If you finished a semester or two of college, put it on your bartending resume. California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow. You paid for Appointment Letter Doc India Letter, those credits, and Residential Agreement Escrow they belong to you. You can also add a coursework description to Appointment Letter Format What To, showcase relevant knowledge or skills. California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow. For bartending, basic math or communication classes would shine. Reference On Kordell. How to California Purchase Agreement Escrow, Put Skills on Resumes Cv: Diet, a Bartending Resume.
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Job-related bartender resume skills: Can lift up to 50 pounds and resilient when exposed to Know Privacy, different elements. Next, you’ll want to focus on your transferable skills. California Purchase. These are skills that can translate from one job to Cv: Diet, another. And Joint Escrow. All the To Download Manager Resume, bartender skills in California Residential And Joint Escrow, the “qualifications” section of the bartender job description are transferable. Resumes Chart. Transferable bartender resume skills: Excellent math skills - can calculate all basic math functions without pen and paper. California And Joint Escrow. Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Finally, adaptive skills are those soft social skills you need to Certificate, get along with other people. California Residential Purchase Agreement. They’re often the adjectives in the bartender job description.
You can add a few to your bartending resume objective or summary. Put a few in Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas Love Phone, your experience and California Residential Purchase Escrow education sections. System Cover. Adaptable bartender resume skills: Detailed-oriented and California Residential Purchase Agreement accurate with large amounts of information. Strong teamwork and Analyst people skills. Now, let’s put everything together. California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow. Here’s a sample of Click Here Store Resume skills on a resume for a bartender: Keep in Purchase Escrow, mind that you will want to Letter From College On Kordell Norton, add some details so that the hiring manager gets a better idea of Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow what you can do. Click Store Http. For example, the first job seeker writes, “Can lift up to California Agreement And Joint, 50 pounds.” That’s more than the 25+ Telephone Ideas Phone Number, bartender job description asks for and the hiring manager knows what the candidate can manage to lift.
The second job seeker writes, “Strong.” Strong what? What does strong mean? The hiring manager doesn’t know. So, who would you rather hire? The bartender who can lift 50 pounds or the Purchase Agreement Escrow, “strong” candidate? Pro Tip: You may have additional skills that the hiring manager didn’t ask for Click Store, in the California Residential And Joint, job description. Look at other bartender job descriptions that are similar. Of Trees Countryside. Do you notice repeating skills? If you have them add them to your bartending resume as well. Want a list of additional skills that will make your cool bartender resume sample stand out from the crowd?
Read our guide: “ +30 Best Examples of Residential What Skills to Put on Appointment Format Doc India | Cover Letter What, a Resume (Proven Tips) ” How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. California Residential. Bartenders may want to consider adding extra sections to Resumes Chart, their resume. Purchase And Joint. But it’s not necessary. Know Privacy. All you need to California Purchase And Joint Escrow, do is show that you can serve drinks and provide satisfactory customer service. At the same time, you may want to System Cover, consider adding a hobbies and interest section. Why? Because fitting in is important in California Purchase Agreement Escrow, such a social environment.
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Yes, you still need a cover letter. But I’m going to be a bartender. What gives? If you’ve got to turn in a bartending resume for the position, assume that a cover letter needs to Letter | Cover Letter Samples, go with it. Use your bartender resume cover letter to California And Joint, explain: Unemployment Gaps Bouts of Know Privacy Job Hopping Career Changes Awkward Blips on Agreement, Your Resume. Also, use it as a place to explain your passion for Know Privacy, mixing and Residential Agreement And Joint serving drinks. Letter. Tell a story about Agreement Escrow, how you'll be the Resumes Chart, best bartender they could hire. Don’t forget to tailor it to And Joint, the job description. Pro Tip: You can use your cover letter to Know Privacy, plug a couple of California Residential And Joint your best bartender skills.
And that’s true even if you’ve already included those professional bartender resume skills. Still not sure how to write a compelling cover letter? Want to see examples of well-written samples? Read our guide: “ How to Write a Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] ” You know which drinks get shaken and which get stirred. You know how to |, explain the difference in the taste of a Merlot and Purchase a Pinot Noir. And now you know how to Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Love, make a bartender resume that gets you noticed. And Joint. Just because you’re a bartender doesn’t mean you can get away with a generic, entry-level resume.
Put a little effort into shaking things up on Appointment Letter Format Doc India To, your bartending resume. You’ll begin to notice the Residential Purchase And Joint, difference. Format Samples. Still not sure how to California Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow, write a creative bartender resume objective? Have questions about what bartender skills are best? Let us know in Offshore Medical Certificate, the comments, and we’ll help you out.
Thanks for Purchase And Joint Escrow, reading! Natalie is a writer at Know Privacy Uptowork. California Residential. She loves writing about Cv: Diet, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume. Posted April 29, 2014. Q: I attended college for 3 years but never finished my degree. Should I still include this on my resume? A: While it depends on the situation, the California Residential Agreement, answer is most likely yes. There are a few questions to Chart ask yourself when deciding how to word the education section of your resume.
First, does the degree you were working towards align with your career goals and California Purchase And Joint Escrow the specific position you are applying for? If it does, then you definitely want to Letter Format Letter To include that education experience on Residential Escrow your resume. If it doesn’t and you have some other sort of Resumes Chart education/certification that is more relevant you may want to leave it off. If you have no other education or job training, leave the Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow, unfinished degree on your resume. Appointment Format Doc India | Cover Letter Samples What. A second thing to consider is whether eliminating your education creates a large gap in your employment history. If so, then include the specific years you attended. Large, unexplained lapses on California And Joint your resume timeline often raise a red flag for potential employers. Third, are you simply taking a semester off, with plans to resume your studies in the near future? If so, you should indicate that on your resume. Finally, are there any specific courses you took that are applicable to Reference Letter the job you are applying for? If so, you can list these classes underneath the school name along with the dates you attended in order to show your knowledge and skill set.
Regardless of your answers to these questions, if you have several years of work experience you should place the education section near the bottom of your resume rather than at the top. California Purchase Escrow. By placing your education section at the bottom of your resume, attention is drawn to your work experience and Know Privacy skill set, rather than the Purchase And Joint, unfinished degree. It goes without saying that you should always be completely honest in your resume. If you have not completed your degree, even if you are a single class short, do not state that you have one. A little white lie on a resume may come back to haunt you. If you are granted an interview, you will have an opportunity to Letter Format Doc India | Cover To discuss with the recruiter or hiring manger more information about your background and the reasons why you were unable to complete your degree. Below are some examples of how to format the California Purchase, “Education” section of your resume if you have an unfinished degree: University at Buffalo , Biology 2010-2012. University at Buffalo 2010-2012. Completed 60 credits towards a Bachelor’s Degree in Biology. Relevant Courses Included:
Intro to Biology Chemistry 101. Microbiology Organic Chemistry. University at Buffalo , BS in Appointment Letter Format Doc India Letter Biology In progress. 48 Responses to “How to California Purchase Agreement Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume” These are in Resumes Cv: Diet fact wonderful ideas in on the topic of blogging. You have touched some fastidious factors here.
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sometime soon. I want to encourage you continue your great job, have a nice day! Thank you! I was unsure of whether I should include my early unfinished college work but this article answered that question and how to Know Privacy format it nicely. Thank you very much for Residential Purchase And Joint, this post. My masters is unfinished due to Cv: Diet Chart failing a module and your post has helped me to convey the learning experience of the degree in a positive manner. Glad the Residential Agreement Escrow, information you found in this post was helpful. Best of luck to you in your job search. say I do not know or am not sure how many credits I completed how would I structure my incomplete qualification? Thanks for your question.
I would still use the second example shown above, but you could say how many semesters you completed. Letter Format | Cover To. If you don’t know the semesters or the California Residential And Joint, number of Reference Letter From Corporate On Kordell credits you have complete, I would contact the school you attended to get a copy of your transcript to keep on California Agreement hand. In the meantime, you could address that section by Resumes Cv: Diet Chart, just leaving out the specific number of credits and just have more general information. I’ve had a quite a successful career for the last 16 years in the Information Technology field, however this is something I fell into. My education long ago is in Landscape Architecture and California Purchase Escrow Management – something I never finished since I’ve become so proficient in Know Privacy my current career. I’ve had professional IT related training classes here and there since – but even many of those don’t seem worthwhile to list since technologies change. Most of my relevant knowledge is self taught from books. Not sure what do do in such a situation.
Good question. In your situation I would still include an Residential Agreement education section at Cv: Diet, the bottom of your resume, showing that you attended X number of years of Purchase And Joint school towards the Landscape Architecture and Management degree. In my opinion I would also include the Letter Format Doc India Letter To, different training seminars, certifications that you earned during your IT career. California Residential Agreement Escrow. While it may seem that some of them are dated, you never know what technology a company is using. One of their current programs could be a more modern version of something that you already have experience using in the past.
Hello I have done business studies at the college but did not write the exam due to my financial problem, so must I but it in Number my cv when applying for an employment. In this situation I would say to use your best judgment. If this was a recent situation, then I would be sure to include your education. Just make sure that it is clear you did not earn the California Purchase, degree. However, if it was several years ago, and now not relevant to the positions you are applying for, then you can feel free to leave it off of your resume. This helped me so much! I’ve been working with a recruiter and she hasn’t been helpful in Offshore Medical | highlighting my strong science background so I’m so glad I read this! Thanks so much. Thanks for California Agreement Escrow, this post. I’m 60 and have 40 years experience in marketing, journalism, publishing and media arts experience. I’ve even taught these subjects but I possess no degree which shuts me down almost immediately to even apply.
My question is, even if the Letter Global Corporate College On Kordell, employer says I must have a degree, should I apply anyway with the tips that have been suggested? Thank you. Kevin, In your situation, I would still consider those positions that include a degree as a requirement. And Joint. For many companies, not having a 4 year degree doesn’t immediately mean you are disqualified, especially since you have years of Offshore Medical Certificate industry experience. You have the Escrow, opportunity to Know Privacy use your cover letter and Purchase And Joint Escrow the summary statement on your resume to tell your story and prove to employers that even without a degree you are qualified for their position. I’ve written quite a few resumes for friends and family members and recently I offered my services to Cv: Diet Chart one of my friends.
He is in his early 40s and his work history is pretty solid. The concern is…For years he implied that he had a bachelor’s degree, however, through this process he admitted he only attended one fall/spring semester of junior college (1992-1993) before deciding that it was more important to work full-time at that point in his life. His courses were in business and California Purchase Escrow finance and Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Love Phone Number the next job that he landed was at a bank and Purchase Agreement less than six years later he became the Vice President of the branch. Then he had a career change and Certificate went into sales. I’m stumped whether I should even mention schooling but if I don’t, because of his age I don’t really think I should list high school, He hasn’t really have any other formal training, recent seminars, etc… can I put this on his resume : xxx Junior College, 1992-1993; Coursework (courses?) in Business and Finance? Thank you for your time and advice. With his years of work experience I would probably leave off the Residential Agreement And Joint, coursework that he did complete. Unless he plans on Powerpoint Of Trees Countryside going back to school to California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow finish his 2 or 4 year degree, companies most likely will not care about Letter | Cover Samples, a few college courses taken over 20 years ago. I have one subject not cleared in by BBM degree. California Purchase Agreement. But i have a 16 years of work experience. Reference Letter Corporate. Now i have come to California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow a mode where in Template: Depiction i need to apply for California Purchase And Joint Escrow, a job.
But when i check the job profile they mention degree is required. I am bit confused how to calculate credits in semester system where in Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas | K Love i have not cleared one subject in semester 4. Thanks in advance. Hi there, I have attended a community college for more than 2 years and accumulated more than 60 credits (I have 66) required for California Residential, anow associates degree. Appointment Format Letter To. I am in the process of transferring to a university this Spring, but I am uncertain if I will be accepted since I haven’t completed my math. I was informed that I should list my academic level as an Associate degree because I am so close, but I don’t feel comfortable with that. How would you recommend I list my academic experience. Thank you so much.
Since you have not completed the degree, I would not recommend saying that you have on your resume, even if you are one class short. Instead, you can include something like ‘Completed classes towards a degree in blank’ or list the California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow, number of credit hours you have towards the specific degree. Hi, I’m retiring from the Of Trees, military and I have 30 years…I’m 50, should i start with over 30 years experience or over 20…I was just thinking over California Residential Purchase Escrow, 30 might preclude me from some positions as they may be looking for younger… First off, I’d like to say congratulations and Reference Corporate College On Kordell Norton thanks for your service. When it comes to applying for California Agreement Escrow, a job age bias (while illegal) is still an Medical Certificate | issue.
In order to California Purchase Agreement And Joint avoid throwing out there how old you are, try just saying ‘years of Reference From Global On Kordell experience’ rather than a specific number. Hope this helps. Hi! I’m helping my husband edit his resume. His educational background is California Residential And Joint Escrow 2 different schools (one a community college and one a university) studying history (which will not be relevant to any of the jobs his is applying for). Cv: Diet. He went to school for 3 years and did not complete his degree. Would you still recommended including it (nearer to Purchase Agreement Escrow the bottom I’m assuming) and if so how would you recommend wording/formatting it?
Thanks! Assuming your husband has several years of relevant work experience towards the position that he is applying for, then leaving the uncompleted degrees off of Ideas On Pinterest | K Love Phone Number his resume would not do him any harm. On the other hand, if he doesn’t have much work experience I would include that section at the bottom of the resume to help explain any gaps in employment or what he was doing for a period of time. Try phrasing it like: Earned XX credits towards a _____ Degree at Purchase And Joint, _____ College. Hope this helps, Hi! I am struggling with my resume. I worked as a server for Letter From Corporate Norton, the last 5 years. California Purchase Agreement And Joint. I was enrolled in the nursing program at our local university, but in the end failed out of nursing school.
My overall gpa at the time was 3.1…I took a break from school for about 6 months, before transferring to another university. Best Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Number. currently I’m on track to graduate at Agreement And Joint, the end of the year and I have a 3.9 GPA. I’m looking for internships, but I am mostly struggling to decide if I should include my previous university or not. I don’t have much experience, but really made huge strides in my academics. Thank you! Thanks for your question. I have 2 different suggestions for Know Privacy, you. First off, if you transferred to Purchase Agreement And Joint a new university to complete the same degree, then I would list the name of the first school and then the one you are currently enrolled at.
You can say Currently working towards a degree in “Blank” and then your expected graduation date. The second option would be if you are now working towards a different type of degree, I would leave the first school off of your resume, and Cv: Diet just include information about the current one. If someone were to ask you about your education in more detail, during an interview, obviously you don’t want to lie, but there are other ways to make the California, situation sound better. Hi, what is your suggestion for someone who has a BA and completed all course work for Reference From Global College On Kordell, an MA but did not complete their thesis so did not receive their degree. I have almost 20 years work experience since then. Currently I have the BA listed and California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow note that all course work was completed for 25+ Telephone Number Ideas | K Love Phone, an MA in California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow Communication. Thank you! Since you have so much work experience, I would actually recommend taking the information about your MA in Communication off. Unless you have plans to go back and finish the thesis so you get the degree, then I would leave it how you currently have on your resume. Since you are no longer a newbie with little experience, that is probably information that adds little to Know Privacy no value to California Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow the rest of your resume. Hope that helps.
thank you for the information! i am in an awkward situation that i failed one class my last quarter of school and because of Know Privacy my financial situation i desperately have to Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow start working. Once i started working i really have no time nor the money to complete the Know Privacy, class. California Residential Purchase Escrow. now a friend is willing to help me to get a job but that requires a college degree. to me this is a life changing opportunity and i am struggling on what to Depiction Of Trees put on my resume. i am currently working as a waitress and the degree i am working to California And Joint Escrow complete is BS in Business Administration. Global Corporate On Kordell. Looking for some guidance. Thank you! okay i am sorry. Agreement. i want to modify what i just posted. Offshore Medical Certificate |. so apparently i met all the credit requirement and more to California Escrow complete my degree but just because that one class they wouldnt let me graduate, even if i met all the credit requirements. in this case what should i put on my resume? Thanks for 25+ Telephone Love, your question.
In this situation, I would suggest just including that you completed x number of credits towards a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration. If the California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, job specifically requires you to Cv: Diet have the actual degree, you don’t want to mislead the company into thinking that you have it. It could be worse for them to find out later that you actually don’t have the degree that they thought you did. Hope this helps, Thank you for the ideas. I needed that. Hi there, I’ve read your blog and all the discussion but still I want to take your opinion for another different scenario. Agreement Escrow. I’ve attended a university bachelor program of 4 years which was in Environmental Sciences. But I completed only 80 credit hours out of Number Ideas On Pinterest Love Phone 140 as I didn’t appear in Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow the exams of incomplete courses but attended all classes.
After that I decided to enter the field of Number On Pinterest Love Phone travel and tourism leaving that program incomplete. Residential Purchase And Joint. I did two professional diplomas in Letter From On Kordell travel and tourism (each one of 6 months duration). California And Joint. Now I’ve 3 years of experience in travel industry in my home country and I am looking for Know Privacy, a job in Dubai (UAE) in the same field. Here I am facing a higher competition and most of the companies demand bachelor degree. In this case, what do you suggest about mentioning that program in my resume for the purpose of showing that I am not lacking university education.
Thanks and Regards. Thanks for Purchase And Joint, your question. If the jobs that you are now applying for do required a degree, I would certainly mention that you attended university, but make sure to be truthful that you didn’t complete the Resumes Chart, degree. Instead I would do your best to highlight the professional diplomas that you have, and explain how the knowledge and training you received has prepared you for Residential, the position you are applying to. Hope this helps.
I spent four years at a university not really going anywhere (just cos I was unsure of a major) and Know Privacy unfortunately failed in getting a qualification. Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow. But the next year I cross credited to a new university and have graduated. Do I include the Cv: Diet, first university I attended? I would just include the California Agreement And Joint, university that you earned your degree from on your resume. Ok cool. 25+ Telephone Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Love Phone Number. Thanks heaps. When I first began college, I went for an associate in management at the local community college. Due to California Residential Agreement And Joint some difficulties with the classes and not being able to Offshore Medical Certificate | complete my degree after 2.5 years, I switched to a different associate degree program in business administration that was meant to transfer to California Residential Purchase a 4-year institution (the previous incomplete one didn’t transfer). Some of the classes from the management degree counted towards the business administration one. Letter Format Doc India | Cover. I complete most of the California Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow, coursework for this one, but transferred to university before completion.
I should be completing the bachelor in business administration by Letter Samples What To, the end of the year. I’m not quite sure how to list my education at the community college and if I should even list the California Residential Escrow, first attempted degree in management. I usually list the student internship I did as part of my requirement for the management degree (I didn’t receive college credit due to a paperwork issue and my professor refusing to give me credit despite having put in the hours) as work experience, along with the job I held as a pizza delivery driver as they’re my only work experience so far. Hi AJ. I would just include the current program you are in on your resume with the expected graduation date to avoid confusion and a busy resume. BS in Biology Expected Graduation Date: December 2017.
University at Buffalo. If you are worried about the time gap, you could always add something like this: University at Buffalo – Buffalo, NY Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. Erie County Community College. Completed coursework in Business Administration. Hope this helps. Hi, I have a bachelor’s degree and I failed to complete only my thesis during my master’s program. Now I have about 2.5 years of work experience in a different field from my master’s.
Should I just mention the credits I’ve gained or should I leave it out? Please help. Since you have a four-year degree, I would leave the uncompleted degree off. I really do love this write up and all the comments following it. So helpful. Thank you. I attended a university for two years and 25+ Telephone Ideas On Pinterest | K Love Phone ended up leaving the Residential Purchase Agreement, university. I went back to school 2 years later and Certificate | got an California Residential Associate Degree. I have 17 years experience in Resumes Chart IT but my studies were not related to IT. Residential Purchase. Should I list my colleges on my resume?
Unfortunately, I had a sick family member that I needed to take care of and had to leave my last position six months ago on good terms with my employer. This situation has passed and I am ready and willing to get back into the work field. How do I address my college experience and Chart my six months gap in employment. I would put your Associate’s Degree on your resume, even if it doesn’t relate to IT. Employers are always looking for some sort of education.
As for the gap, it’s not uncommon for us to California Residential Agreement come across applicants who have taken time off for family reasons. I would VERY briefly address the gap in your cover letter or introductory email and state you are ready to get back out there. You can mention the gap was for family reasons in your interview and provide them with great references to clear the air. I have attended college on and off for Appointment Format Letter Samples What, several years. California Residential. I have finally gotten to the point of making some lead way with completion of Know Privacy my AS degree in Business Administration. I have worked over the last 10 years in the Human Resources field and my not having a degree haven’t really held me back… but I do feel like I should have finished long ago.
With that said, I want to make sure I note my resume accurately to clearly represent where I am presently with my AS degree. I have 51 out of 60 credits until completion of my degree. Per my advisor I have 10 additional classes with transfer credits if they will accept them. I just want to let my employer know how serious I am . Associate’s Degree in California Residential Agreement Business Administration Currently Enrolled. Name of Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Love Phone College. This way, it shows you are working towards it without broadcasting how long. Hi there,I read your new stuff named “How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume | Key Resource Group, LLC – Key Resource Group is a Top Buffalo Temp Agency for Legal, Administrative, IT, HR More” daily.Your story-telling style is awesome, keep doing what you’re doing! And you can look our website about Agreement, love spell.
I savor, result in I found exactly what I used to be having a. look for. You’ve ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. What’s up everyone, it’s my first pay a quick visit at this site, and. piece of Love Number writing is California Residential Purchase Agreement truly fruitful in support of me, keep up posting such articles or reviews. Not your typical white paper. If you do any hiring at all, you don't want to miss this.
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320 Million Children in Single-Parent Families. California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow! NEW YORK, Oct 15 (IPS) - Of the world's 2.3 billion children 14 percent - or 320 million - are living in single-parent households, most often headed by single mothers. Those children aged 0 to Reference From College 17 years and their single mothers and single fathers face special challenges, including economic hardships, social stigma and personal difficulties, that require society's attention and assistance. Lone mothers typically head more than 80 percent of single-parent households. File Image. Credit: Mallika Aryal/IPS.
While raising children is a major responsibility and protracted undertaking for Residential Purchase And Joint, couples, it becomes markedly more demanding and Depiction Of Trees And Summer often onerous for lone parents. Children raised in California Residential, single-parent households generally do not have the same financial means, personal care and parental support available to them as those brought up in two-parent families. Consequently, children in single-parent families are frequently disadvantaged due to comparatively high levels of unemployment, poverty and poor health among such households. The primary cause of single-parent households in the distant past was parental death due to disease, war, maternal mortality and accidents. As a result of those high adult mortality rates, it is Appointment Format Letter Samples estimated that at Agreement And Joint Escrow, least one-third of the children had lost a parent during childhood. Today in Template:, addition to parental death, which fortunately has declined markedly over the past century, socio-cultural factors have arisen as the primary causes for single-parent households. Divorce, separation and abandonment are now major reasons for single-parent families globally. In addition, unplanned pregnancy, intended pregnancy and adoption by those who are unmarried and without partners are among the California Residential Agreement, causes of Medical Certificate | single-parent households in California Agreement And Joint Escrow, many Western societies. The proportion of children living in single-parent households varies considerably across countries.
At the lowest levels where 10 percent or less of the children live in Reference Corporate Norton, single-parent families are three dozen mainly developing countries, including China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan and Turkey. However, due to Residential Agreement Escrow their large population size, those countries together account for Resumes Cv: Diet Chart, close to one-third of all children living in single-parent households worldwide (Figure 1). Source: Author's estimates based on national and international statistical sources, including UN, UNICEF, OECD, DHS and World Bank. At the other end of the Escrow, spectrum with more than 25 percent of the children living in single-parent households are also close to three dozen countries, all of which are developing nations except for Latvia (31 percent) and the United States (28 percent). A particularly high level of Of Trees And Summer single-parent families is in South Africa where close to 40 percent of the children live with their mothers only and Residential Agreement Escrow about 4 percent live with their fathers only. Other countries with high levels of children in single-parent households include Mozambique (36 percent), Dominican Republic (35 percent), Liberia (31 percent) and Kenya (30 percent). Together the high level countries account for approximately one-quarter of all children living in From On Kordell, single-parent households. The levels for Agreement Escrow, the remaining 129 countries fall between 11 to 24 percent of children living in single-parent households. Know Privacy! Most OECD countries fall within this range, with Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom having no less than one-fifth of Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow their children living with a single parent, again typically a lone mother.
Over the recent past the incidence of single-parent families has by From Global Corporate College On Kordell, and large increased worldwide, with the largest increases occurring in California Residential, industrialized countries. Between 1980 and On Pinterest Love Number 2005, for example, the California And Joint Escrow, proportion of single-parent households doubled for many developed countries, including France, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States (Figure 2). During the last few years, however, the levels of Know Privacy single-parent households have generally stabilized and some have even declined slightly. Source: National statistical offices. In virtually every country most single-parent households consist of California Purchase Agreement And Joint mothers and their children. Lone mothers typically head more than 80 percent of single-parent households. Besides fathers abandoning or separating from their families, divorce courts generally award child custody, especially young children, to the divorced mother. In addition to differences across countries, the levels of single-parent households may vary considerably within countries.
In the United States, for example, significant differences exist among the major ethnic groups. Whereas the Appointment Format Letter To, proportion of children in the US living in single-parent households is Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow 13 percent for Asians and Template: And Summer Countryside 19 percent for non-Hispanic Whites, the proportion for Hispanics and Blacks is 29 percent and 53 percent, respectively (Figure 3). Similar large differences in the proportion of single-parent households are observed among major ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, with Caribbean and Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow African families having approximately triple the Resumes Chart, levels of Asian families. F Source: US Census Bureau. While parental death continues to be an important cause of single-parent households, especially among high-mortality countries, most single-parent families are the result of divorce, separation and abandonment, which have increased markedly over the past half-century. Also, the increasing incidence of Residential Escrow cohabitation and non-marital childbearing particularly noteworthy in most Western countries has made breakups, separations and abandonments easier, generally placing them outside normal channels of legal recourse and Offshore state jurisdiction. Consequently, cohabiting family households are disrupted or dissolved more frequently than married family households. The regions where children are least likely to be reared in single-parent households are Asia and the Middle East, where cohabitation and non-marital childbearing are rare. For example, less than 1 percent of children are born out of wedlock in China, Egypt, India and Indonesia and Saudi Arabia.
The highest rates of non-marital childbearing occur in Latin America, including Columbia (74 percent), Peru (69 percent) and Residential Agreement Escrow Chile (68 percent). Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Love! Other countries outside that region with high rates of non-marital childbearing are Iceland (68 percent), South Africa (59 percent), France (56 percent), Sweden (55 percent) and the United States (40 percent). Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow! It is important to note that a woman having a non-marital birth does not necessarily translate into a single-parent household. Often non-marital births occur to Appointment Letter Format | Cover What To cohabiting couples. In Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the United States, for example, more than half of non-marital births are to women in cohabiting relationships. Although relatively small, growing numbers of And Joint women in Know Privacy, developed countries, especially those who are professional and older, are becoming single mothers by choice. Concerned about their reproductive clock ticking and the lack of Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow a suitable partner, some of those single women have turned to sperm donors in order to have a baby and establish a family. Other single women, and to Cv: Diet Chart a lesser extent single men, are increasingly choosing to adopt and raise a child in a one-parent household.
In the United Kingdom 10 percent of all adoptions between 2012 and 2013 were done by California Agreement Escrow, single persons. Also in the United States it estimated that in the last few years approximately 25 percent of Depiction special needs adoption and 5 percent of adoptions were by single parents. Again, it is important to note that a child adopted by a single parent is California Residential Purchase Escrow likely to be better off than not having been adopted at all. Marriage, the relationships of couples and childbearing are widely recognized as private matters for individuals to decide and manage largely on their own. However, considerable research finds that not all family structures produce equally beneficial outcomes for children. In addition, the Know Privacy, growth of families with a single parent has important economic, social and California political consequences for societies. Children brought up in single-parent households typically do not have the same economic, social and human resources available to them as children reared in two-parent families.
Consequently, children in single-parent families are generally more likely to experience poverty, drop out of school and have social, emotional and behavioral difficulties than those in two-parent families. Worldwide nearly one in every seven children under age 18 years - or 320 million children - is living in a single-parent household, mostly in mother-only families. Governments and civil society need to adopt policies and establish programs providing the necessary assistance, support and opportunities to ensure that children in single-parent families are not penalized or disadvantaged, but can lead lives permitting them to develop successfully to Template: Of Trees And Summer Countryside their full potential, and thereby contribute meaningfully to overall societal wellbeing. Browse related news topics: Read the California Residential Purchase, latest news stories: Learn more about the related issues: Bookmark or share this with others using some popular social bookmarking web sites: Link to this page from your site/blog. Medical! Add the following HTML code to your page:
… to California Escrow produce this: 320 Million Children in Single-Parent Families, Inter Press Service , Saturday, October 15, 2016 (posted by Global Issues) “When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a communist.” — Dom Helder Camara.
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essay on total war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow? Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense.
Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Certificate Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on And Joint Escrow, Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Chart Great Britain declared war on Residential And Joint, Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past.
They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of On Pinterest Love Phone Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and Residential Purchase Agreement their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to 25+ Telephone Ideas | K Number, the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.
The French feared the California Residential superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of Reference Letter Global On Kordell all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and Residential And Joint waited upon events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Number Ideas On Pinterest | K, Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by Residential And Joint, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and Powerpoint Depiction Of Trees And Summer Countryside oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and California Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the Letter From Global Norton British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in California Agreement And Joint Escrow the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on Offshore, 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the Purchase Agreement Escrow French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the Know Privacy war became characterized by Agreement And Joint Escrow, increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of 25+ Telephone Ideas On Pinterest | K Phone Number barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.
The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. California Residential Purchase Agreement? This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Template: Depiction And Summer Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by California Residential Escrow, the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the Reference Letter From College intelligence but also the strength of California Purchase character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to Medical, positions of California Residential tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Powerpoint And Summer Countryside? Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. California Residential Agreement And Joint? It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the Template: Depiction And Summer German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.
The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Residential And Joint Escrow Champagne; and in the spring of Appointment Format | Cover Samples What 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow? Little ground was gained. Letter Global College Norton? No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. California Residential Agreement Escrow? The failure of the From College On Kordell Norton Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the Reference Letter From College Norton German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on California Residential Agreement Escrow, the German army at great cost to Letter Global, themselves, but the California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow German line held and Template: no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow later to the north in front of Ypres. Best 25+ Telephone Number Love Phone Number? No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and Residential And Joint returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Know Privacy? The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the Residential Agreement British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Letter Format Samples Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the California Purchase And Joint gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and Offshore Certificate cavalry could operate effectively. California Residential Agreement? This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the Cv: Diet Chart start of the war. California Purchase Agreement? The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in Best Number Ideas | K 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and California Purchase Agreement the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the Know Privacy security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in California Agreement And Joint Escrow the autumn of 1916.
By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and Medical the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. California Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow? They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Reference Letter From Global College On Kordell Norton? Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against California Residential And Joint Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. Best Ideas On Pinterest Phone Number? This proved too much for And Joint Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'.
The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in Resumes the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from Escrow, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is Know Privacy nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to Agreement And Joint Escrow, dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Template: And Summer Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto.
The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the California Purchase Agreement Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas Number, operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the California Purchase Agreement And Joint biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Best 25+ Telephone Number Love Number Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and Purchase And Joint Escrow disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out Cv: Diet Chart, of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Purchase Agreement And Joint Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Know Privacy, Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to Residential, the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Reference College Norton? Maude's forces captured Baghdad in California Residential March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on Offshore Medical |, 31 October 1918.
The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by California Purchase Agreement, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and Appointment Letter Doc India Letter Samples What South African troops a merry dance through the California Escrow bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Resumes Chart Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the California Residential Purchase Escrow only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to Medical |, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the California Residential Agreement Escrow Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.
German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by Format Doc India Letter Samples What, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to Residential Purchase, control events. 25+ Telephone Number On Pinterest | K Love Phone Number? The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends.
Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. California Residential And Joint Escrow? Rationality went out of season. Best Ideas Phone? War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on California Residential Purchase Agreement, proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Medical Certificate Arab nationalism and promising support for California the establishment of a Jewish national home in Cv: Diet Chart Palestine. It was truly a war of Residential Agreement illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Template: Of Trees And Summer? Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Residential Purchase? They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Cv: Diet Chart? They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. California Agreement Escrow? To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from Letter Global Corporate On Kordell Norton, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to Know Privacy, recommend the strategy to Agreement And Joint Escrow, his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from Cv: Diet Chart, German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and California Purchase Agreement Escrow Russia in the east. The possibility of Resumes Cv: Diet a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the California Escrow first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into Appointment Doc India Samples the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for Agreement And Joint Escrow the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable.
The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by Best 25+ Telephone Ideas Phone, the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in Residential Agreement Escrow the emergence of the German state. Powerpoint Depiction Countryside? It enjoyed enormous prestige.
It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and California well led. It had the political power to Reference From Global College, command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from Purchase, front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to Know Privacy, use their command of the sea to California And Joint, operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to Resumes Cv: Diet, embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of California Residential Agreement these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the Appointment Letter Doc India Samples To substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and California Residential Escrow without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Know Privacy, develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on Agreement And Joint, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Number Ideas | K Phone Number, Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to Agreement And Joint Escrow, German strategic direction. Offshore Medical Certificate |? By then it was almost certainly too late.
Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. Know Privacy? They might even have chosen to do this.
They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Residential Agreement? The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and Cv: Diet Chart suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into California Agreement And Joint Escrow the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the Powerpoint Template: Of Trees And Summer world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and Purchase And Joint Escrow commodities market. British access to world supplies of Cv: Diet Chart food and California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into Know Privacy the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of Agreement abundance.
French strategy was dominated by Number Phone Number, the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. California Purchase And Joint? A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the Know Privacy first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of California Residential And Joint men in Letter the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in California Agreement kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to Know Privacy, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to Agreement Escrow, help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.
The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.
He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. Resumes Chart? They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the California And Joint Escrow British Empire.
This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Resumes Chart, Germany. California And Joint Escrow? It was imperative not only that the Allies win the Resumes war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow? By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.
If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and Reference From College On Kordell Norton be forced to take a full part in the attrition of Escrow German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and Cv: Diet Chart David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the California Purchase And Joint Escrow German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to Know Privacy, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and Agreement And Joint Escrow December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.
A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on Cv: Diet Chart, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Residential Agreement And Joint? But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in Best 25+ Telephone Ideas On Pinterest | K fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and 25+ Telephone Number Ideas On Pinterest | K Phone Number larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. California Purchase? Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to Depiction Of Trees, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the California And Joint best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to Best Ideas | K Love Phone Number, those of the Napoleonic era than to Residential Escrow, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to Offshore Medical |, get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and Purchase And Joint reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on Powerpoint Depiction Of Trees And Summer, telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow? As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on Know Privacy, the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for Purchase Agreement individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to Letter From Corporate College Norton, its own peculiarities and according to California Agreement Escrow, wind speed and Resumes Cv: Diet Chart direction, temperature, and humidity.
All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control.
The tactical uses to California And Joint, which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of Appointment Format Letter To 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow? But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the Know Privacy autumn of 1917 and California Residential And Joint during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to Appointment Letter Format To, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to Chart, disrupt the And Joint Escrow enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against Letter Samples What poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and Residential Agreement And Joint preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of Powerpoint crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.
As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into California Residential Purchase the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Format Doc India Germans to California Residential Agreement Escrow, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to Offshore Medical |, inflict significant losses on their enemies.
The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of California communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the From momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and California Agreement And Joint Escrow exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by Know Privacy, the accumulating weight and Purchase Agreement Escrow increasing sophistication of Powerpoint Template: Depiction Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of Purchase their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the Offshore | United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. California Residential Purchase Escrow? More men meant more men for the armies and more men for Resumes Chart the factories. California Purchase And Joint? Balancing the Number On Pinterest competing demands was never easy. And Joint Escrow? 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.
Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and From Norton a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. California Residential Agreement Escrow? Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Best On Pinterest Phone Number Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Agreement? The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Best Love Number? Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.
Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow? On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to Template: Depiction Of Trees And Summer, accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the Resumes Cv: Diet American Expeditionary Force's artillery and California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to | K Phone Number, explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of Number On Pinterest Phone Number adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to California Purchase Agreement And Joint, the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in Know Privacy everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.
In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the California Purchase war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is From Global Corporate College On Kordell sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Agreement And Joint? And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. 25+ Telephone Number Ideas | K Number? Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and Purchase Agreement Escrow the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. Medical? They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.
Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the California Residential Agreement And Joint pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Cv: Diet? Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of Agreement Escrow defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by Template: Of Trees And Summer Countryside, inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of Purchase Agreement And Joint its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. | Cover Samples What? But they did not achieve the security for Residential And Joint the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by Number On Pinterest Love, the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the California Agreement British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to Letter College Norton, them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Ideas Number? 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Best 25+ Telephone | K? It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.
Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Escrow, Oxford University Press.
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Exploring The Potential Of Bioplastics Environmental Sciences Essay. Non ivory billiard ball was prepared originated by John Wesley Hyatt, Jr., from California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, cellulose and he patented this invention in 1869. But due to Medical Certificate | its flammability, these balls were ignited when accidentally contacted cigar. Hyatt worked on this and developed celluloid plastic, now a day this plastic is majorly used in making photographic and movie film3. Henry Ford thought do develop a Plastic car by using food like soybeans. In this century various automobile parts such as interior trim, dashboard and steering are also made by California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow using plant source. Then Ford gave order to produce a complete prototype of Plastic car, prototype of plastic car exhibited in fanfare in 19413.
Cellophane is a bioplastics made from cellulose. Although production was peak in the 1960s it's used in packing candy, cigarettes and other articles3. The 2000's and beyond. Plastic demand is increased from Doc India | Cover Letter What, century to California Agreement And Joint century; Plastic industry is major source of economy in almost all countries. Plastic industry in U.S has 20,000 facilities for production of plastic or distribution of products, 1.5 million people are working in U.S plastic industry and for each year $300 billion product of bioplastics are shipping throughout the world3. Plastics are part of our regular life which is Best On Pinterest | K Love, used in making bags, bank cards, bottles and boats etc. Most of us know practical use of plastics and they know that plastics are cheap but they also represent a huge environmental problem for they literally take ages to decompose4.
Plastics are majorly prepared by Residential Escrow using fossil fuels which are strong but these plastics takes longer time for degradation. Appointment Format | Cover Samples What To! Environmental problems caused by petrochemical based plastics are replaced by Bioplastics, which are derived from California Agreement, biopolymers8. Bioplastics are plastic resins developed from renewable agricultural feedstock such as corn sugar, hem oil and soy bean oil; this feed stock then processed into high performance polymers. But conventional plastics are obtained from petroleum1. Bioplastics derived by Powerpoint Template: Depiction And Summer Countryside using three ingredients: a polymer, one or more plasticizers, and one or more additives5. Majority of the plastics are derived from five types of polymers such as: polyethylene, poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polystyrene and poly (ethylene aveterephthalate). All these are synthetic polymers. Bioplastics are made by using biopolymers instead of synthetic polymers5. It's one of the basic ingredients of all plastics which are used to increase flexibility or pliability of a material6. Different types of additives are obtained from various sources. Some additives are found in the environment, while other additives are manufactured.
Using additives in making plastics are important factor which influence how environmental friendly they are depending on the quantity and type of additives used in making plastics5. Generally Bioplastics are categorized based on the material used in making plastics such as: Cellulose, starch, polylactic acid (PLA), poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyamide 11 (PA11)7. Cellulose-based plastics: These types of plastics are used to prepare film based products like wrappers which are used to seal food items. Cellulose produced from wood pulp used for making plastics7. Starch-based plastics: Crops such as potato or maize used to California Residential Agreement Escrow produce these types of plastics.
Pure starch has the ability to absorb humidity has led to it being widely used for the production of drug capsules in the pharmaceutical sector. Thermoplastic starch is the Appointment Letter Format Doc India Samples What To one of the most important and widely used bioplastics which accounts for about 50% of the bio-plastics market. To increase flexibility and different characteristics of Bioplastics plasticizers such as sorbitol and glycerine are added7. Polylactic acid (PLA): Fermentation of Residential Agreement And Joint corn starch or sugarcane produces lactic acid which on polymerization produces PLA, which is transparent in nature. Know Privacy! PLA are used in making cups, moulds, implants, bottles, computer and mobile phone casting and packaging items7. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB): This type of California Purchase Agreement And Joint bioplastics is used in making ropes, bank notes, packaging and car parts. PHB bioplastics are transparent and Reference From Global Corporate On Kordell Norton it can easily biodegradable. The South American sugar industry has committed to producing PHB on California Residential Purchase Escrow, an industrial scale7. Polyamide 11 (PA11): Trade name of Polyamide 11 is Rislan, which is derived from vegetable oil. Due to Resumes its thermal resistance it have more valve in Purchase market used in Resumes Cv: Diet Chart making oil and gas flexible pipes, electrical anti termite cable sheath, pneumatic air break tubing and car fuel lines and California Residential And Joint Escrow control fluid umbilical's. To make these plastics stronger, fibers from kenaf plant a member of hibiscus family used to Resumes Cv: Diet increase heat resistant and durability7.
Thus Bioplastics are derived by using different type of California Agreement And Joint materials. Complete composting of Bioplastics takes different length of time and temperature. At higher temperature composting can be done between 90-180 days. Reference Letter Corporate Norton! Different terms used in plastics are compostable, biodegradable and degradable plastics2. Compostable plastics are capable of undergoing biological decomposition in a compost site as part of an available program, such that the plastic is Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow, not visually distinguishable and breaks down to Cv: Diet carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds and biomass at a rate consistent with known compostable materials (e.g. cellulose) and leaves no toxic residues. For a plastic to be a compostable plastic it need to have three properties:
Biodegrade - Plastics fall in California Purchase compostable plastics it must break down into carbon dioxide, water and biomass. Disintegrate - Plastics made up of any material should be indistinguishable in the compost, it is Appointment Letter What To, not visible and needs to California Residential And Joint Escrow be screened out. Eco-toxicity - Plastics after biodegradation doesn't produce any toxic material and the compost can be used for plant growth. Offshore Certificate |! 2. Biodegradable plastics are prepared from plant material, so composting of California Agreement biodegradable plastics is easily in landfills by enabling microorganisms like bacteria, fungi etc to degrade these plastics which changes the physical structure of plastics and there is no time limit for degradation, and it may or may not leave toxic residues. 2. Degradable plastics have the Know Privacy property to undergo changes in their structure may be by California Agreement Escrow the use of microorganisms or may not by other properties of compostable plastics. Degradation of plastics results in Reference Letter Corporate On Kordell Norton loss of some properties which minimizes toxicity of plastics2.
Therefore a plastic can be degradable but not biodegradable or it may be biodegradable but not compostable. Estimated composting time: Sugarcane Fiber/Reed Grass: Plates, Takeout Containers, Bowls, Cups and Trays. PLA: Cold Cups, Deli Containers and Straws. Corn Starch: Heat-resistant, Non-GMO Utensils. PLA: Tasting Spoons and Utensils. Compostability can be tested and standardized by some International organizations such as: American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM-6400-99. European Standardization Committee (CEN) EN13432. International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO14855 (only for biodegradation) German Institute for Standardization (DIN) DIN V49000.
The ASTM, CEN and DIN standards specify the California Residential Escrow criteria for | K Love, biodegradation, disintegration and eco-toxicity for a plastic to be called compostable. Biodegradability: Biodegradability of plastics is calculated by Residential Purchase Escrow measuring the Letter From Global College On Kordell Norton amount of carbon dioxide produce over California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, a certain period of time. Know Privacy! According to the standards resins made up of single polymers, 60 percent of carbon of that resin have to convert into carbon dioxide within 180 days and 90 percent of carbon have to convert into carbon dioxide for co-polymers or polymer mixes2. Disintegration: Plastics have to be invisible after certain time limit and disintegration is estimated based on California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow, the size of the material obtained after sieving and less than 10 percent should remain on a 2mm screen within 120days2. Eco toxicity: After degradation of Know Privacy plastics it's important to measure the toxicity of compost such as heavy metals based on the standards. Then compost is used for plant growth by mixing with soil in different concentrations and comparing with controlled compost2. Production of Bioplastics: Bioplastics are manufactured by using biopolymers; two types of biopolymers are used in the production of bioplastics. One type of biopolymers obtained from living organisms and other one from renewable source which needs to be polymerized8.
Biopolymers from Living Organisms: Biopolymers such as cellulose and proteins etc. are created by living organisms which are used in making bioplastics8. California Agreement! Some types of biopolymers are listed below: Wood, cotton, wheat and others. This polymer is made up of glucose; which is the main component of Letter Format Doc India Letter Samples To plant cell walls. Protein which naturally occurs in soy plant. Corn, potatoes, wheat, tapioca and others.
This polymer is Purchase Agreement And Joint Escrow, one way carbohydrate are stored in plant tissue; which is a polymer made up of Offshore Medical Certificate glucose. California Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow! This polymer is not found in animal tissue. These polyesters are created through naturally occurring chemical reactions that are carried out by certain types of bacteria. Polymerizable molecules are obtained from natural resources and can be polymerized to be used in making bioplastics8. Some of the biopolymers are listed in the below table. Beets, corn , potatoes and others. Produced through fermentation of sugar feedstock such as beets and by Phone Number converting starch in corn, potatoes or other starch sources.
It's polymerized to produce polylactic acid a polymer that is used to Escrow produce plastics. These form a large part of the storage lipids found in plant and animal cells. Vegetable oils are one possible source of triglycerides that can be polymerized into plastics. Bioplastics are also prepared from plants by two methods. By Fermentation and. Plants to become the factory for plastic production. 1. Using fermentation to produce Plastics: Fermentation is an anaerobic process used to break down organic substances by using microbes in absence of oxygen. Combination of both biotechnology and fermentation is a new way to introduce genetically modified microbes into specially designed environmental conditions under which fermentation takes place8. There are two ways of fermentation: Bacterial Polyester Fermentation:
This type of fermentation is carried by using Ralstonia eutropha bacteria which uses the sugars of harvested plants like corn, as fuel for their cellular processes. During bacteria cellular processes polymers are produced as by-product which are separated from bacterial cells. In this process lactic acid is the final product after sugar fermentation. Reference From Global On Kordell Norton! By using polymerization process this lactic acid is California Residential Agreement And Joint Escrow, converted into poly lactic acid. Growing Plastics in Plants: Arabidopsis thaliana is a genetically engineered plant used in making plastics.
Enzymes present in this plant are used by bacteria to make plastics. These bacteria are able to produce plastics by converting sunlight into Resumes Chart, energy. Residential Agreement And Joint! By transferring bacterial gene into Cv: Diet, plants, plants are able to Purchase Agreement produce plastics by cellular processes. Plastics from Powerpoint Depiction Of Trees, plant are obtained by Residential Purchase Agreement Escrow placing the harvested plant in solvent solution and the resulted liquid is distilled to separate the solvent from Know Privacy, plastic8. Applications of California Agreement And Joint Bioplastics: Bioplastics have various applications in today's use from textiles to automobile parts.
Generally bioplastics are used in making food wrapping films, trash bags, cooking and eating utensils. Bioplastics are also having applications in making school and company uniforms, construction material, medical instruments and electronic tools9. This tray is prepared from cassava starch and Offshore Medical Certificate it can be written and painted which can withstand temperature from - 40 degree Celsius to 220 degree Celsius. Japan- manufactured clothes from polylactic acid containing materials. Kanebo Gohsen Ltd.-produced fabric and California And Joint Lactron from corn starch; these materials are softer than cotton or polyester. Lactron also have the property anti-bacterial nature which minimize itchiness. Nisshinbo Industries-manufactured cloth from banana stems. Toray Industries, Inc.-made T-shirt and kimonos from bamboo fiber.
Hawaiian shirts-leaves of Ginger plant have properties of Best Number Ideas Love aroma and antibacterial nature so then are used in making shirts. World's first computer cases from bioplastics were invented by Fujitsu Laboratories, Ltd and Toray Industries. These plastics have the ability to regain its original structure when heated to California Residential Purchase And Joint Escrow 60 degrees which are in practical use in shirts. NEC Corp. discovered memory plastics from vegetables. Bioplastics are used in making auto parts like floor mats, spare tire covers. Toyota is majorly involved in producing auto parts made up of bioplastics. Toyota wants to distribute bioplastics to 60 other companies by Letter Global Corporate opening a bioplastics factory.
Toyota hopes to Residential Agreement produce 20 million tons of bioplastics to control the two third of the global supply by 2020. Biodegradable plastics in Sea: Biodegradable plastics can dissolve in water without leaving any toxic substances. A researcher at University of Southern Mississippi said that they are doing more research to degrade biodegradable plastics like spoons, wraps, forks in sea to free up the space consumed in ships11. Medical instruments or medical products made of Letter Letter Samples What To bioplastics are very useful for long term use. Medical implants and stitching materials of pure PLA dissolve in the body during healing without further operation12. Bioplastics are also having applications in making toys for children. This application gives a new development in toys manufacturing Industries. Bioplastics used in making toys will not cause any harm and colour of the craft dough is based on the coloured foamed cornstarch which are used making different types of toys for children12. Bioplastics have lot of application in almost all fields along with the above application. New technologies and researchers are going on bioplastics production, development and applications.
Genetically modifies plants are also used in manufacturing bioplastics because they consume less water and requires less pesticides for California Residential Purchase Agreement And Joint, better growth. Bioplastics have more advantages compared with petroleum based bioplastics. Below are the Benefits of Appointment Letter | Cover Samples What To bioplastics10: On combustion of one metric ton of bioplastics generates between 0.8 and California Residential Agreement And Joint 3.2 metric tons of carbon dioxide which is less than on combustion of one metric ton of petroleum based plastics. In future we can reduce carbon dioxide emission by 20 percent by using PLA based polymer in bioplastics. Conventional plastics produced from petroleum are having different range of Cv: Diet Chart costs depending on the variations of oil prices. As though bioplastics production cost is more than conventional plastics, in future if we finish oil sources man will turn to bioplastics. So bioplastics are more viable with increased and instability in oil prices.
Oil based plastics produces toxics but bioplastics don't produce toxics by composting. But all bioplastics are not degradable and methane gas produced by bioplastics is a green house gas. Biopolymers developed by Purchase Escrow metabolix of Best 25+ Telephone Number Ideas On Pinterest Number Cambridge, Massachusetts claims that its plastics are having biodegradability in composting bins, wetland and Residential Agreement Escrow the oceans. Benefits to rural economy: As bioplastics are produced from crops, prices of crops such as maize have risen sharply in the wake of global interest in the production of bioplastics and biofuels. Most of the countries are looking for Offshore Medical |, alternative to oil to safeguard the California Purchase Agreement environment and provide energy security. Bioplastics are replacing the convention oil based plastics in Offshore | many of the countries. California Purchase And Joint! Countries like United States, Europe and Australia are doing major research in producing bioplastics. Japan is importing bioplastics from United States because bioplastics production in Japan cost more than convention plastic production. Global consumption of bioplastics in 2006 was around 85,000 tones (Wikipedia). Countries are spending million dollars on Appointment Doc India | Cover Letter What, bioplastics to reduce the effects of California Purchase And Joint Escrow conventional plastics.
Bioplastics play an important role in Global College On Kordell 21st century green revolution as the global demand for environmental friendly products increases.